The best 6 physical features of Indian geography that are important for competitive exams

The best 3 physical features of Indian geography

India is the seventh-largest country in the world in terms of the area having 3,287,265 square kilometres and second-largest country in terms of the population all over the world. But the Geographical area of India is little unique due to its physical features.

The best 6 physical features of Indian geography which provides uniqueness to India and also bring beautiful views. This topic is very important for those who have been preparing for the competitive exams like- SSC, Banking, Railways, UPSC, State PCS etc.


Here The best 6 physical features of Indian geography based on Structural Differences;



 The best 6 physical features of Indian geography
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India has different types of relief features. Their history dates bank to different geological periods and there are differences in structure and surface of features. Based on these differences, India is divided into divisions;


  1. The Himalayan Range.
  2. The Northern Plains.
  3. The Deccan Plateau.
  4. Coastal Plains.
  5. Islands.
  6. Deserts.


The Himalayan Range;



 The best 6 physical features of Indian geography
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The Himalayas are also known as ” Young Fold Mountains ” in the world and surround on the North, North-West and North-East forming an arc. They are also known as “ Northern Mountains ” and it begins at Pamir Knot in the west and extends up to Arunachal Pradesh in the east. They are the part of the Great Mountains of the North which run along the northern border of India has two divisions—-The Karakoram and the Himalayas.


KarakoramThe Karakoram has a number of a number of ranges like Zaskar, Ladakh, and Pir Panjal with mainly river Jhelum flows in this region.
HimalayasThe Himalayas has three important ranges--Himadri, Himachal and Shivalik, about 2400 km in length and varying in width from 250-320 km.


  • The Greater Himalayas; It is a northern range, average approximately. 6100 metres in height and contain three highest mountains on earth—-Mount Everest which is having a height of 8848 metres, K2 or Godwin Austin ( 8611 m ) and Kanchanjunga ( 8597 m ). Such high altitudes admit travel to a few passes only.


Shipki La PassIt lies in Satluj Valley near north-east of Kalpa.
Jalep La PassIt lies between east Sikkim, India and Tibet.
Nathu La PassIt lies between Indo-Tibet route through the chumbi valley.


Note; Barala-Cha pass is in Himachal Pradesh.


Greater Himalayas or Himadri, under perpetual snow, contains several glaciers which are sources of rivers like Ganga and Yamuna. The core of this part of Himalayas is composed of granite.


  • The Lesser Himalayas; Lesser Himalayas are also known as ” Himachal ” and having a range height of 1500-5000 metres. They are situated south of the Greater Himalayas, the average width is of 50 kilometres. They are also called as ” Middle Himalayas ” consists of many parallel mountain ranges. While the Pir Panjal range forms the longest and the most important range, the Dhaula Dhar and the Mahabharat ranges are also prominent ones. This range consists of the famous valley of Kashmir, the Kangra and Kullu valley in Himachal range


  • The Outer Himalayas; They are the southern Himalayas, averaging between 900 m and 1200 m in height lie between the lesser Himalayas and the Indo-Gangetic plains. These discontinuous ranges join the Lesser Himalayas in the extreme east. The longitudinal valley lying between Lesser Himalayas and the Shiwaliks are known as duns. 


Note; Dehra Dun, Kotli Dun, Patli Dun are some well known Duns.

The Northern Plains;


The best 6 physical features of Indian geography
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The Northern Plains are also known as the Indo-Gangetic Plains formed by the valleys of the rivers Ganges and Brahmaputra, with a length of about 2400 kilometres and width ranging between 240 km to 350 km. These plains occupy 1\3 of India’s land surface and form the most fertile region. 


According to terrain characteristics, this plan consists of two parts;

  • The upland plains which lie above the flood level are made up of alluvial soil. It is one of the most fertile areas in the world.
  • The low lands which are liable to inundation during floods. 


The Deccan Plateau;


The best 6 physical features of Indian geography
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The Deccan plateau lies south of the northern plains and also lies near the southern side of Vindhyas range. This plateau is bagged by the mountain ranges called the Eastern Ghats and the Western Ghats. It is geographically the oldest region of India. It is most ancient and is a part of the Gondwana landmass which existed in the early stages of the earth. It is also known as Peninsular Plateau and is the largest of all geographical divisions of India. This peninsular plateau is formed in triangular shape being broad in the north and narrow the south.


The AravallisThese are the oldest mountain ranges in India. The highest peak in these ranges is Guru Shikhar at Mount Abu, lying near the Gujarat border.
The VindhyasThese ranges separate the southern part of India from the northern part.
The SatpuraThese ranges lie between the rivers Narmada and Tapti. These run parallel to the Vindhyas ranges.


Ghats of India; There are two ghats of India that play a very important role in the Peninsular zone of India.


  • Western Ghats; They run along the western edge of India’s Deccan Plateau and separate it from a narrow coastal plain along the Arabian Sea. The range of these ghats run approximately 1500 km.


  • Eastern Ghats; They are smaller than western ghats, some of its peaks are over 1000 m in height. The Nilgiri Hills in Tamil Nadu lies at the junction of the eastern and western ghats.


The best 6 physical features of Indian geography
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  • The Western Ghats run parallel from the river Tapti to Kanyakumari.
  • The western ghats are continuous in nature. 
  • Eastern ghats are discontinuous.
  • Nilgiri Hills are also called as the Blue Mountains. 

Coastal Plains;


The best 6 physical features of Indian geography
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The coastal areas are those areas which are in touch with the ocean. The northern portion of the western coastal plain is called the Konkan and the southern portion is called the Malabar Coast. The eastern coastal strip is known as the Coromandel coast.


  • The West Coast; It spreads from Kutch in Gujarat in the north between the Arabian sea and the Western Ghats, up to the Cape of Kanyakumari in the south.


  • The Eastern Coast; It spreads from Kanyakumari in the south to the Gangetic river in the north. The est coast is located between the Bay of Bengal and the eastern ghats have a wide and flat coast time.



  • Eastern Coast has deltas of  Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Cauvery etc rivers.
  • Major ports in Western Coast; Mumbai, Marmugao, Cochin, Kandla, Mangalore.
  • Major ports in Eastern Coast; Tuticorin, Chennai, Paradip, Vishakhapatnam and Haldia.
  • Gujarat has the largest coastal line in India.



The best 6 physical features of Indian geography
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There are two main Islands of India which lie in both Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea.


  • Andaman and Nicobar islands.
  • Lakshadweep Islands.


  • Andaman and Nicobar Islands;  The northern cluster of 204 small islands comprise the Andaman and the southern cluster of 19 small islands are the Nicobar islands.


  • Lakshadweep Islands; A group of 27 coral islands scattered in the Arabian Sea 300 kilometres west of Kerela.



  • Lakshadweep Islands are rich in biodiversity. 
  • 9 Degree Channel lies between Lakshadweep and Minicoy.
  • Andaman and Nicobar Islands posses an equatorial type of climate.
  • 10 Degree channel lies between little Andaman and Nicobar. 



The best 6 physical features of Indian geography
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The Thar Desert, also known as the Great Indian Desert, is a large, arid region in the north-western part of the Indian subcontinental and forms a natural boundary running along the border between Indian and Pakistan.


It extends from Sutlej river and has the Indus river on the west. The Aravallis forms the main landmark to the south-east of the Thar Desert with Run of Kutch. the salt march, sometimes included in the Thar is on its south. It lies mostly in the Indian States of Rajasthan, touches the southern portion of Haryana and Punjab and northern Gujarat.


Note; The Cholistan Desert adjoins the Thar Desert spreading into Pakistani Punjab province.

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The best 6 physical features of Indian geography that we have explained above are very important for the competitive points of view because the geography section mainly involves Physical features, the Drainage system and soil etc. We have also expressed some important point in the tables and notes, that are really helpful for the static GK purpose.


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